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questions and answers - modern proven technology of hypercompressionhypercompression of fine milled waste without burning and without glues ...
questions listQ0101 - Are Bi-component raw material Preparatory Lines possible?
Q0114 - What is hipermoulding?
Q0115 - Does hipermoulding process have common features with vibrational...
Q0119 - What is the strength of Press-output brick?
Q0120 - Do the Press-output products need burning and steaming?
Q0123 - May output products be sun-exposed to accelerate ripening?
Q0124 - May output products be sun-exposed to accelerate ripening?
Q0125 - Why incompletely ripened HIPERPRESS products are delivered?
Q0126 - Does the product remain incompletely ripened when layered into...
Q0127 - May such plastifiers like additional agents to mould be used?
Q0090 - Why only mineral wastes are suitable as raw materials?
Q0091 - May the clay as mineral substance be used as raw material?
Q0092 - What is maximum allowable content of clay in lime-stone, for...
Q0093 - What is maximum allowable content of organics in raw materials?
Q0094 - What is the maximum allowable moisture content in source raw...
Q0095 - How can unnecessary moisture be removed from raw materials?
Q0096 - What state of raw materials is the most desirable: either large...
Q0134 - What is lime-stone?
Q0135 - What kinds of lime-stone are observable at natural conditions?
Q0097 - How are the raw materials processed in order to turn them into...
Q0098 - What raw materials are the most suitable?
Q0013 - What are the main "producers" of mineral wastes in Russia?
Q0014 - Does purity of waste products affect ecological purity of...
Q0016 - In what way can one gain economic advantages when puryfying...
questions and answers list
|Q0101||Are Bi-component raw material Preparatory Lines possible?|
|Yes. Preparatory Lines of Bi-component raw are used in such cases as: when soft lime-stone is to be added to "hard" basic raw materials to decrease expenditure of moulds, at making thin coloured layer at surface of sidewalk tile to decrease pygment expenditure. The comparative economic analysis of profitability of investment to Bi-component Preparatory line, Press modification, expenditure of pygment usage and mould renewal should be performed.|
|Q0114||What is hipermoulding?|
|Hipermoulding is a process of production of construction materials on the basis of mutual friction of small-dispersed substance particles at high pressure and cohesion (cold welding) between them . During this process the oxide films are removed from surface of particles and open juvenile surfaces are formed. The required moulding pressure and grinding depth become less significantly when binding agents with high adhesion to small-dispersed particle surface are used. The binding agent (cement) content is about 6-10% whereas it is about 28-30% is standard concrete.|
|Q0115||Does hipermoulding process have common features with vibrational moulding?|
|No, it has not. Vibrational moulding is a process of making material by packing particles at low pressure with vibration and when binding agents are used. The binging agent (cement) content is about 20-25% unlike hipermoulding when it is about 6-10%.|
|Q0119||What is the strength of Press-output brick?|
|The strength of Press yield brick is 20-30 kG/cm2. It is enough for palletizing them onto tray. The 60-70% portion of final strength (140-160%) is get after 3rd - 5th day of keeping them on storage for ripening. Total ripening duration is 28-29 days.|
|Q0120||Do the Press-output products need burning and steaming?|
|No, they do not. But standing for 3-5 days at storage room is required for ripening. Its is desirable to pour floor of storage to keep moisture.|
|Q0123||May output products be sun-exposed to accelerate ripening?|
|No, never. The water will be dried by sun, and interaction between cement, dusty fraction and water will be incomplete so required delivery shipping strength will not be reached. Moreover, in some case undeliverable cracking may occur.|
|Q0124||May output products be sun-exposed to accelerate ripening?|
|No, never. The products are still weak and rain-drops or excessive humidity can destroy sides of products.|
|Q0125||Why incompletely ripened HIPERPRESS products are delivered?|
|The product have sufficient strength when being stood for 3-5 days. The strength is sufficient for shipping and palletizing at fair resistance agains atmospheric influence. The storage volume is less 6-9 times at 3-5 day standing than storage volume at complete standing.|
|Q0126||Does the product remain incompletely ripened when layered into wall or into pavement?|
|No, it ripens finally better than at storage because it is surrounded with mortar.|
|Q0127||May such plastifiers like additional agents to mould be used?|
|Yes, they may but not required.|
|Q0090||Why only mineral wastes are suitable as raw materials?|
|The minerals have always been constituting the basis of natural construction material (stone). The reduction of natural stone requires its minerals and use of mineral binding agent is required.|
|Q0091||May the clay as mineral substance be used as raw material?|
|No, it isnot, i.e. it is suitable but only if it is burnt. Clays are small-dispersed uncemented bound sedimentary rocks that mainly consist of clay minerals - water silicates of layered structure. "Cold welding" of non-burnt clays at tribomoulding is impossible due to large moisture content.|
|Q0092||What is maximum allowable content of clay in lime-stone, for example?|
|Lime-stone is wide-spread sedimentary rock. It consists mainly of calcite CaCo3. It is observed as either rest of lime-stone mussels and skeletons of various organisms or as small crystal grains. It contains often significant content of rock-forming mineral - double calcium and magnesium carbonate CaMg[CO3]2 - dolomite, sandy or clayey particles. Lime-stones are classified as dolomite, sandy and clayey (marl) ones.Large content of bound clays is permittable but content of free-state clay may not be greater that 2%.|
|Q0093||What is maximum allowable content of organics in raw materials?|
|Not greater than 1%. The silt is the most widely spreaded organic component of minerals (in sand especially) and it should washed out.|
|Q0094||What is the maximum allowable moisture content in source raw materials?|
|Maximum allowable moisture content in source raw materials must not be greater that 8%.|
|Q0095||How can unnecessary moisture be removed from raw materials?|
|Drying piled raw materials at the expense of self-drainage of unnecessary moisture is an efficient and economical procedure. The mean moisture content of 0-30 mm fractional raw materials becomes 4-5% (while initial connent is 8-10%) and the mean moisture content of 0-3 mm fractional raw materials falls down to 7-8% (while initial content is 15-18%) in 35 days when storing at warmed warehouse.|
|Q0096||What state of raw materials is the most desirable: either large or small fractions?|
|It depends on season and component set of Preparatory Line: whether it equipped with hammer crasher for large-fraction. Large raw fraction (up to 30 mm) is less moisturable in quarry (usually up to 8-10%) than small but rtequires further grinding with do drying even at wet season. Small-dispersed raws requires drying in these seasons but no additional grinding is needed. Thou, if hammer crasher is present with required seeder and conveyer system then large-sized raw is usable in wet seasons but small-sized raw is usable in dry seasons. Small-sized raw materials and drying are always required in case no hammer crasher.|
|Q0134||What is lime-stone?|
|Lime-stone is a sedimantary rock mainly on the basis of calcium carbonate (calcite). It is wide spreaded, its processing is easy, and has specific chemical properties. It is mined and used very often but less than sandy-gravel sediments. The colour range of lime-stone is very wide, even black but the most observable rocks are white, gray or brownish. Lime-stone is featured with layered structure as sedimentary rock. The density lies withing 2.2-2.7 range. It is soft and easily scratchable rock. Pure lime-stone consists of calcite only (seldom small portion of other kind of calcium carbonate - aragonite is possible). Admixtures are also possible. Double calcium and magnesium carbonate , known as dolomite is observable in varying portions and transitions between lime-stone, dolomite lime-stone and dolomite rock are possible. Water precipitaion brings clayey particles and rock becomes clayey and sharp differences between lime-stone, clayey lime-stone and agrillaceous slate are lost. Lime-stone is gradually turned to marble as the whole volume of rock is subjected to recrystallisation and mosaic structure appears (aggregate of clearly bordered and densely one to another adjacent isometric grains of approximately the same size).|
|Q0135||What kinds of lime-stone are observable at natural conditions?|
|Many kinds of lime-stone exist. Coquina is cluster of fragments that form cellular aggregate. Chalk is a soft crumbling staining rock, which is formed if mussels are of microscopic size. Oolite limestone consists of small (size is close to size of roe grain) mutually cemented balls. The core of such oolite ball may be either grit or mussel fragment or particle of another material. Pisolite consists of larger balls (size is close to pea size) and corresponding rock is known as pisolite limestone. The lime-stone which is formed on surface as a result of calcium carbonate precipitation from water of carboneous mineral spring. Lime-stone tuff is very porous sediment. Marl us uncemented mixture of calcium carbonate and clay.|
|Q0097||How are the raw materials processed in order to turn them into mould?|
|Large-sized raw materials (0-30 mm) undergo preliminary grinding to 0-3 mm fraction with further mix and final grinding with cement, pygment and water measured out in doses. Mixing and final grinding perform in rod grinding mixer. Small-sized raw materials assume the same procedure but preliminary grinding is not performed.|
|Q0098||What raw materials are the most suitable?|
|Any kind of above mentioned raw materials are suitable with some preferences. Dolomite or agrillaceous (marl) lime-stone of soft type (coquina) is used at brick fabrication. It allows to gain high physical and mechanical properties of brick (240-250 kg/cm2, 150 frost resistance cycles), reliable repeatability of result and less depreciation of mould. Either hard lime-stone of soft granite (200-300 kg/cm2) are used in production of sidewalk tile. These materials allow to gain high physical amd mechanical properties of tile (600-750 kg/cm2, 500 frost resistance cycles), reliable repeatability of results and normal depreciation of mould.|
|Q0013||What are the main "producers" of mineral wastes in Russia?|
|The list is long enough: Quarries, Stone-Sawing Factories, Cement Plants, ore mining and dressing enterprises, coal mining and dressing plants, Heat Power Plants that use coal, Metallurgical Plants, large Ceramic Brick Making Plants.|
|Q0014||Does purity of waste products affect ecological purity of HIPERPRESS-made materials?|
|The heightened portions of hazardous chemical elements or substances in raw materials have a negative influence on ecological purity of HIPERPRESS-made materials.|
|Q0016||In what way can one gain economic advantages when puryfying environment?|
|Ask local authorities for free-of-charge grant of lots for industrial premises of HIPERPRESS mini-plants. Demolition of wastes as a part of penalty expenditures and rental of ground for storage of wastes may be suggested to "producers" of mineral wastes.|